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      1 - Hoof trimming as a part of lameness control in dairy farms
      Reyhane Sangtarash Marzieh Faezi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Production diseases and conditions is common on intensive dairy farming which lead to pain and uncomforting or death in affected animals. Lameness has negative effects on comfort and economic issues. In many cases, lameness is associated with pain, which may change the More
      Production diseases and conditions is common on intensive dairy farming which lead to pain and uncomforting or death in affected animals. Lameness has negative effects on comfort and economic issues. In many cases, lameness is associated with pain, which may change the cow's motivation to perform certain behaviors (such as walking, lying, etc.) for pain reduction and discomfort. Reduced milk yield, poor reproductive performance, shortened productive time, increased culling risk and treatment costs are the major related economic losses. Despite all the negative effects of lameness on animals and the dairy industry, limited research has been done to evaluate preventive measures. Low awareness of lameness maybe the biggest problem in its detection and control. Lameness control strategies usually include hoof trimming and treatment of motility disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of hoof trimming and its effect on claw health (effect of hoof trimming on infectious diseases, non-infectious diseases or other claw-related injuries), behavioral variables (lying time and locomotion score), physiological variables (heart rate, respiration rate, plasma cortisol level, etc.), production variables (milk production and reproduction) and other factors related to hoof trimming. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Applied Anatomy and Histology of the bovine hooves and limbs
      Mohammad Mirhaj Mohammad Ali Sadeghi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Bovine hoof with its fine structures and accurate function is used for routine locomotion. This part of common integument has special characteristics to carry on a very high resistance to external/internal stimuli. Production and components of different parts of this sm More
      Bovine hoof with its fine structures and accurate function is used for routine locomotion. This part of common integument has special characteristics to carry on a very high resistance to external/internal stimuli. Production and components of different parts of this small region vary and its variation in origin of production makes different protection against systemic disturbances or external/internal forces. Variation among species like cattle and horse limbs, expected performance (confinement and milk production versus athletic performance) and metabolic pressure on each animal results in different outcomes after hoof pathologies. For example, unlike horse, in cattle sinking of 3rd phalanx is more pronounced in the heel region. Horn capsule with its firm, sensitive and complex structure tries to neutralize the forces to which the limb is subjected. Any abnormality in hoof capsule vital tissues is a beginning for claw horn disruption lesion (CHDL) in a dairy farm. There are many hypotheses aiming to describe CHDL pathogenesis. No longer is it acceptable to believe that SARA = Subclinical laminitis. The disorder cannot be managed simply from a nutritional perspective and is Multifactorial. With better understanding of each part of this complex structure and the processes that occur after damage, a better understanding of the physiopathology of hoof capsule injuries is obtained. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Gait biomechanics and digital growth and weight bearing pattern in dairy cows.
      mohammad ali sadeghi Khosro Safari Nikroo mohammad mirhaj
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Lameness is one the most important problems in dairy herds and a major cause of financial loss and pain and discomfort to animals. Different surveys have revealed that most lameness causing lesions in cattle originate in the claw and in order to better understand the cl More
      Lameness is one the most important problems in dairy herds and a major cause of financial loss and pain and discomfort to animals. Different surveys have revealed that most lameness causing lesions in cattle originate in the claw and in order to better understand the claw disorders, one has to have good understanding of the anatomic structure, horn characteristics, and biomechanics of the claw. The claw is a direct product of the underlying living tissue and different factors affect the rate of horn growth and wear. Here, we aim to review the different factors effecting the horn growth and wear, weight bearing, and biomechanics of the claw. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A review on hoof trimming timing in cows
      Marzieh Faezi Alireza Bahonar Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Hoof trimming as a part of hoof health management is one of the important parts of herd health management system. Timing of hoof trimming and its method are the main subjects that must be known for an efficient hoof trimming program. In the current study, the different More
      Hoof trimming as a part of hoof health management is one of the important parts of herd health management system. Timing of hoof trimming and its method are the main subjects that must be known for an efficient hoof trimming program. In the current study, the different suggested timings of trimming (around drying, early, middle and end of lactation) have been reviewed. Although the need for more research to find the best time for hoof trimming is yet necessary, an appropriate timing is suggested based on the current literature. Also the unique role of accurate data recording system in time management of trimming is mentioned. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Effect of Trace Mineral on the Hoof Health
      Fatemeh Kohansal Marzieh Faezi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      The claw quality is a product of claw shape, characteristics of the horn and anatomy of the inner structure. Hoof health is largely determined by the production of good quality horn of adequate resistance. The functional integrity of hoof horn essentially depends on a p More
      The claw quality is a product of claw shape, characteristics of the horn and anatomy of the inner structure. Hoof health is largely determined by the production of good quality horn of adequate resistance. The functional integrity of hoof horn essentially depends on a proper differentiation, i.e., keratinization of hoof epidermal cells. Keratinization of hoof epidermis is controlled and modulated by a variety of bioactive molecules and hormones. This process is dependent on an appropriate supply of nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Regulation and control of differentiation and nutrient flow to the epidermal cells play a central role in determining the quality and, consequently, the functional integrity of hoof horn. Decreasing nutrient supply to keratinizing epidermal cells leads to horn production of inferior quality and increased susceptibility to chemical, physical, or microbial damage from the environment. A growing body of evidence suggests that hormones, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements play critical roles in the normal development of claw horn and correct keratin formation. Increasing the bioavailability of trace minerals improves their utilization and thus contributes to an improved integrity of keratinized tissues. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Local care of the hooves (Footbath application)
      Khosro Safari Nikroo mohammad ali sadeghi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Foothbathes are one of the most efficient methods of control and prevention of foot lamenesses specially hoof infectious diseases in dairy herd facilities. In this article different types of foothbathes, design and structure, solutions and renewal rates have been review More
      Foothbathes are one of the most efficient methods of control and prevention of foot lamenesses specially hoof infectious diseases in dairy herd facilities. In this article different types of foothbathes, design and structure, solutions and renewal rates have been reviewed. Copper sulphate and formalin were the most frequently used solution and dimention of 81 cm of width, 3-3.7 m length and depth of 11 cm were introduced as standard dimentions. On the other hand due to environmental and human concerns these solution should be evacuated approperiatly. Also the most appropriate range of bath usage was between 1-4 times a day and 1-7 times a week and in each bath, between 100-300 cows can pass without significant reduction of chemical solution concentration. It should be noted that merely observing these instructions will not reduce digital diseases, and other health and disease control programs should be considered in the herd. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A review of common instruments usage in cattle hoof trimming
      Ehsan Rostami Mojtaba Mohamaddoust Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Hoof trimming devices and facilities play an important role in hoof trimming, health of hoof trimmer and cow. Hoof trimming is a dangerous task for bot cows and trimmers and trimmer should consider usage of proper instruments and facilities for doing good job. Personal More
      Hoof trimming devices and facilities play an important role in hoof trimming, health of hoof trimmer and cow. Hoof trimming is a dangerous task for bot cows and trimmers and trimmer should consider usage of proper instruments and facilities for doing good job. Personal protections like usage of gloves, glass shields and trimming gown can help in improving health and security of the trimmer. In this current review hoof trimming devices like hoof scissors, hoof knives, sharpening of the hoof knives, angle grinders, hoof trimming discs were reviewed. Usage of angle grinders with proper disc may lower hazards for hoof trimmer and increase quality of hoof trimming and its final outcome. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Cattle functional and corrective hoof trimming (Fundamentals and methods)
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Hoof trimming consider as one of daily activities in dairy farms, as cows refer to hoof trimming chute several times annually. Hoof trimming is a hard work that needs special facilities, knowledge and skills with continuing education to reach optimum efficiency in farms More
      Hoof trimming consider as one of daily activities in dairy farms, as cows refer to hoof trimming chute several times annually. Hoof trimming is a hard work that needs special facilities, knowledge and skills with continuing education to reach optimum efficiency in farms. Different hoof trimming techniques were used in past years and Dutch hoof trimming method published by Tussaint Raven consider as the first well explain method that still is the base of different hoof trimming methods around the world. However, White line reunion and Kansas methods also were used in different parts of the world. Hoof trimming were done in order to balance weight distribution between digits, transfer weight to normal digits and finding lesions in early stages. Corkscrew claws needs special trimming that were described in this article. Hoof trimming faults like over trimming of abaxial hoof wall, sole, heel and toe were mentioned in this article. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Hoof blocks in dairy cows, fundamentals and techniques of application
      Mojtaba Mohamaddoust Fatemeh Kohansal Reyhane Sangtarash Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Digital lesions were treated by corrective hoof trimming, nonstroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hoof blocks on a sound claw. Any claw lesions including sole ulcer, white line diseases, toe ulcer, digital wall lesions, penetrating interdigital necrobacillosis should b More
      Digital lesions were treated by corrective hoof trimming, nonstroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hoof blocks on a sound claw. Any claw lesions including sole ulcer, white line diseases, toe ulcer, digital wall lesions, penetrating interdigital necrobacillosis should be treated using hoof blocks. Block height estimated as 25, width 50 and length 110 millimeters. Sound claw should be prepared for block adhesion with no eminence or any rugged part. The block should stick to the digit slightly toward the heel. Different glue and adhesives were used in hoof blocking. Functional glues generally divided in to two groups of Epoxy and Polyurethane. These glues are strong with good elasticity. Epoxy glues are synthetic glues consisting of two parts of resin and hardener and are stronger than polyurethane glues. Polyurethane glues are more tolerant than epoxies against rusting and trauma but because of Isocyanates are dangerous in use. Methymetacrylate adhesive glues are located between polyurethane and epoxy glues with strong and elastic features. Different techniques of hoof block usage were reviewed in this current study. Manuscript profile
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Lameness, an ongoing threat to dairy farms
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia Amir Nejati
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is review More
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is reviewed in this article. A general look at economic loss cycles, different discomfort and health issues that may caused by lameness are the main topics that were reviewed in this article. Data recording is one of the most important factors that should be considered in any analysis. Current methods of data recording in hoof trimming chute, including paper works and usage of excel sheets and other software were reviewed. General concepts of Farsi language android application for hoof data recording introduced and analysed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - An Introduction to Equine Dentistry; Necessity of Much More Consideration
      Alireza Raayat jahromi
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based More
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based on a scientific plan can lead to an early and definitive diagnosis; which results in a correct intervention and treatment. Dental and oral observation, necessary diagnostic and restraint equipment and instruments, attritional lesions and injuries will be explained and discussed. Finally, the current situation of equine dentistry in our country will be evaluated so that its necessity would be much more seriously considered. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Risk factors for cattle lameness
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on More
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on understanding value of causative agents and risk factors in a condition like lameness and evaluating risk factors in dairy farms. Risk factors were classified into farm building or environment factors (Top roof of the barns and its slop and height, flooring and its drainage, distance to milking parlour, milking parlour collecting area, alleys and foot bathes) Managerial factors (Nutrition and feeding, overstocking, herd composition, days in milk, cow movements in the herd, slurry cleaning and drainage, bedding) environment (Temperature, humidity, raining, wind, altitude, heat stress management) and cow factors (body condition scoring, milk production, concurrent diseases, time budgeting). Each factor was analysed in Iran’s dairy farming situation and applied methods of its management were discussed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Epidemiology of lameness; economic importance, prevalence and incidence
      Marzieh Faezi Reyhaneh Sangtarash
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea More
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea leads to misunderstanding of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Currently, veterinarians must support herd health programs designed to increase production by preventing disease, rather than just dispensing traditional treatment to clinically sick animals. Lameness as one of the costliest disorders in dairy herds, needs special attention. Both preventive costs (such as hoof trimming costs) and the losses due to heifer replacements and milk yield reduction should be counted as the economic losses of a disease. Indeed, local data play an important role in estimating lameness losses. Calculating measures of morbidity is a key point that helps the veterinarian and the farmer to know about the farm condition. So, in this article the economic importance of lameness and the concept of prevalence and incidence of it were reviewed. At the end there are some information about the prevalence and incidence of lameness in Iran and some other countries. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Cow comfort, a basis for lameness control
      Reyhaneh Sangtarash Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Ensiyeh Sajadyan jaghargh
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the da More
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the dairy cow is feeling well, functioning well, and performing natural behavior. Cow behavior and comfort level have a direct relationship with her production and health and cow comfort is one of the most important factors affecting the profitability of dairy farms due to its association with premature slaughter, survival of cows and reproductive life (number of complete lactations before slaughter). In this paper, we explained the concept of comfort in dairy cattle and its risk factors such as stall design, floor type, density, lameness and heat stress. Then the measures of cow comfort are introduced and the management considerations related to cattle comfort are discussed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Metabolic disturbances predispose dairy cows to lameness
      Ali  Ghashghaii Mohamad Riahi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty More
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty liver. Disturbances in macro-minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, micro-minerals, proteins and enzymes often occur days to weeks after parturition. One or the most challenging post-parturient problem, is ruminal acidosis, that it mainly occurs due to changes in ration by using high fermentable carbohydrates to support milk production. All of mentioned disturbances can affect the hoof health and causing lameness in dairy cows. Laminitis is an important sequel of metabolic disturbances and ruminal acidosis in combination with inappropriate housing and management. Lameness can affect cow health and comfort, causing considerable economic losses in dairy industry. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Locomotion biomechanic and scoring in dairy farms
      Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Marzieh Faezi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and ex More
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and external factors can affect it. Following herd size growing, farmer’s attention to individual cows has been reduced, therefore lameness diagnostic accrued in sever stages when treatments have the least effect on recovery and prevention. In this article, we try to understand pain basics and behavior changes related to it, using these changes in gait (i.e. back arch, walking speed, track up, head bob etc.) to assess different locomotion scoring systems and their use in dairy farms. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Early diagnosis, an important success factor for treatment and control of lameness in cow
      Mohammad Reza  Aghchelou
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion More
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion scoring, the prevalence of lameness in same dairy herds was on average 8.1%. This matter shows importance of correct lameness diagnosis. The aim of this article is review of practical ways to early diagnosis of lameness in cows. Early diagnosis of lameness in cows is a very important matter because a cow that shows sever lameness have major problems and easily recognizable but a cow with lesser injury have a milder lameness and diagnosis is more difficult. In case of timely detection there is more success in treatment because of less injury. The best time for lameness diagnosis is the cows are monitored when they go to the milking parlor and return. The studies were shown usually farmers identify one of the four lamb cows because they spend a little time for this task, also the gait of cows change on different floors, like wet concrete, although it is difficult to diagnose the sound gait of mild lameness in many cases. In dairy cattle farms in addition to Body Condition Score which is done regularly, Locomotion Scoring is done regularly to allow early diagnosis of lameness. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Methods of Determining Age of Ruminants and Camelids by Using Dentition Patterns
      Sare Rezaei Amir Zakian Nima Moradpour
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Determining age is very important in domestic livestock because in addition to health, nutrition and grazing, from point of veterinary science some of the special disease it is age dependent and appear at certain ages. Therefore, knowing the age of domestic livestock fo More
      Determining age is very important in domestic livestock because in addition to health, nutrition and grazing, from point of veterinary science some of the special disease it is age dependent and appear at certain ages. Therefore, knowing the age of domestic livestock for the farmers both in terms of anticipating and preventing diseases and in terms of treatment is important and have a significant effect on exploitation, usage of animals in different services and the cost of farm. One of the methods of determining and judgment of the age in domestic animals is the use of the number, shape and date of tooth eruption. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide practical and useful information for determining the age in ruminants and camelids, as reviewed by peer-reviewed articles and resources in recent years. We hope that this article will be useful to all students of veterinary medicine, active clinicians in large animals field, animal dentistry enthusiasts and other related businesses. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Vital Pulp Therapy an Appropriate Way to Save Tooth Life
      Bahareh Aghamohammadi Azin Tavakoli
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed a More
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed and would be necrotic or infected .In most cases pulpotomy would be the treatment choice for pulp exposures with pulpitis because of the reparative potential of remained tissue and biocompatibility of pulpotomy materials .Therefore development of biocompatible treatments for preservation of pulp vitality and tooth survival is important. Manuscript profile
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    Number of Volumes 8
    Number of Issues 15
    Printed Articles 65
    Number of Authors 139
    Article Views 117007
    Article Downloads 30871
    Number of Submitted Articles 79
    Number of Rejected Articles 11
    Number of Accepted Articles 66
    Acceptance 83 %
    Admission Time(Day) 187
    Reviewer Count 22
    Last Update 12/1/2022