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  • About the journal

    Eltiam

    "Eltima" is a Farsi word meaning "healing," which is the title of this journal. Eltiam Journal is published biannually by the Iranian Veterinary Surgery Association (IVSA) with the aim of releasing special issues on various clinical subjects. Such publications have been undertaken in other parts of the world to address potential gaps.

    Eltiam has been published biannually since 2015 as an open-access Farsi-language journal with English abstracts. Eltiam has been granted recognition by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology of Iran and is indexed by the Islamic World Science Citation Center and other local indexing engines.

    Guest editors are selected for each issue by the chief editor and editorial board, providing an opportunity for researchers and young potentials across the country to showcase their valuable scientific experiences. This allows veterinarians nationwide to access new and integrated information on their fields of interest. Review articles are prepared under the journal's guidance to address local demands and aim to cover all relevant aspects of the subject matter in each issue, serving as a comprehensive reference for practical use. All review articles are supervised by the guest editor and published in an organized manner.

    Over time, subjects such as equine joint health, abdominal sonography of cows, wound management, dentistry, equine colic, lameness in cattle, small animal clinical pathology, and many others have been reviewed in this journal. Results of scientific research are also published in a separate section of the journal.

    We would be delighted if Farsi-language researchers submitted their valuable study results for publication in the journal. All submissions undergo a thorough review process in line with the journal's policies.

    In the second section, based on the scopes of the journal, other scientific review and original articles are published.  

    The guest editor of each issue is responsible for reviewing the articles and the policy for reviewing original articles is based on double-blind peer review.

    Thanks to the continuous support of the Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, publishing articles in Eltiam is free of charge.


    Recent Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Problem-solving and Futures Studies in Veterinary Programs and Services
      Alireza Bahonar Hamid Sharifi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      The increase in population and the need to supply foodstuffs have raised the importance of animal health and veterinary activities more than ever before in the country's food security and development. In this paper, which focuses on veterinary activities in the field of More
      The increase in population and the need to supply foodstuffs have raised the importance of animal health and veterinary activities more than ever before in the country's food security and development. In this paper, which focuses on veterinary activities in the field of food-producing livestock, the concepts of need, supply, and demand are defined, and the methods of determining and prioritizing health needs in the livestock population of the country are presented. In the context of problems in setting priorities, there are also important points such as livestock population statistics, lack of human resources, rapid management changes, economic factors, management considerations, the traditional structure of animal husbandry, insufficient training of producers, and technical health officials of livestock farms, lack of inter-sectoral cooperation and necessary support. From the country's veterinary organization, the lack of sufficient information about diseases and animal health status in neighboring countries, especially Iraq and Afghanistan, and the weakness of border and interprovincial quarantine systems have been noted. Factors affecting the use of animal health services points such as access to services, feeling of need or demand, assurance of quality, price and cost of services and insurance coverage have been mentioned. On the other hand, in recent decades, issues such as climate change, changes in international laws and regulations related to animal health and environment, transgenic products, bioterrorism, and drought, each of which affects the health and livestock production in some way, the need to pay attention to Proposes futures studies. Futures studies are a science that helps to better see these changes and prepare for them. The emergence of some new fields such as artificial intelligence, remote medicine and veterinary medicine (Telemedicine), personalized medicine and veterinary medicine, the emergence of robots in medicine and veterinary medicine, etc. paid attention. The sum of these issues should make us think about how much preparation there is for the future and these changes. It is suggested to make changes in the important fields of veterinary medicine such as education and research, veterinary structures at the national and international levels, and jobs related to veterinary medicine, in line with foresight and futurology. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Evaluation of Diagnostic and Screening Test in Veterinary Medicine
      Mohammad Arad Zandieh Fateme Sheikhian Hamid Sharifi Hesameddin Akbarein
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      Screening tests are a special type of diagnostic tests that are performed in an apparently healthy population. The purpose of performing diagnostic tests is to correctly diagnose patients, distinguish affected animals from healthy animals, distinguish between cases and More
      Screening tests are a special type of diagnostic tests that are performed in an apparently healthy population. The purpose of performing diagnostic tests is to correctly diagnose patients, distinguish affected animals from healthy animals, distinguish between cases and controls, and distinguish between normal and abnormal cases. Screening tests should be simple, cheap, rapid and valid. Diagnostic and screening tests are mainly used in the monitoring of diseases. Related terms to the evaluation of these tests, including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy and precision, as well as concepts such as the golden standard, because they are often used interchangeably or misinterpreted, it is especially important to learn them. Also, due to the fact that gold standard tests are often more expensive and time-consuming, incomplete diagnostic tests are used, which can be calculated by calculating the sensitivity and specificity of the actual and apparent prevalence obtained by the diagnostic test. However, if the golden standard test is not available, other methods are used to evaluate the tests, including the Kappa index test. The interpretation results of these tests provide a comprehensive and evidence-based approach to clinicians and experts, which ultimately leads to more accurate, comprehensive, cheaper and faster monitoring. In this review article, with a complete and comprehensive review of the conventional concepts in the evaluation of diagnostic tests, along with the solution of practical examples, we will expand and provide a comprehensive presentation of these concepts. Also, the latest original studies that have been done in the field of evaluation of diagnostic tests will also be reviewed in this article. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - An overview of sampling, sample size and data collection methods in veterinary research
      Dariush Saadati Samira Saadat jou Ali Anusha
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      At the beginning of any study, these questions usually come to the researcher's mind; How many samples should be taken to conduct this study? How are these samples selected from the target population? How I can collect the required data? In this article, we are going to More
      At the beginning of any study, these questions usually come to the researcher's mind; How many samples should be taken to conduct this study? How are these samples selected from the target population? How I can collect the required data? In this article, we are going to answer these questions. In order to choose the appropriate sample size, attention should be paid to the statistical method with which the data is to be analyzed. In the surveys, the researcher intends to estimate the desired average or prevalence in the population with 95% confidence interval. There are two formulas for determining the sample size in surveys that are referred to. In studies, the aim is to compare the average or prevalence between different groups. In each study, according to which statistical test to use for data analysis, there is a specific formula for determining the sample size, some of which are mentioned in this article. In order to choose the sampling method from a statistical point of view, attention should be paid to the type of research, in surveys and cross-sectional observational studies, the samples should be randomly selected from among the members of the population. Otherwise, these samples will not be representative of the target population. But in interventional studies, random sampling method is not considered. Rather, there are inclusion criteria, and any person or animal (in veterinary studies) who meets these criteria can enter the study. After the members enter the intervention study, these members should be randomly assigned to different treatments. The required data to conduct research can be collected through examination, observation, experiments or interviews. A questionnaire must be designed for the interview. In designing the questionnaire, attention should be paid to the validity and reliability of the questions. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Data Analyses in Veterinary Research & Practice
      Negin Esfandiary MohammadArad zandieh
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      Researchers can interpret and analyze livestock problems and diseases by using data obtained from different characteristics of animals and their environment. The pivotal role of statistical analysis of data in the field of veterinary research & practice is inevitable. I More
      Researchers can interpret and analyze livestock problems and diseases by using data obtained from different characteristics of animals and their environment. The pivotal role of statistical analysis of data in the field of veterinary research & practice is inevitable. In this review article, shedding light on its significance in unraveling complex patterns and drawing reliable conclusions from diverse datasets. The veterinary domain, characterized by a spectrum of species and inherent biological variability, necessitates robust statistical methodologies to discern meaningful insights. In order to make inferences about disease causation or a researcher's hypothesis, data must be categorized and the goal is to decide whether the groups are statistically different or not. Finally, using a suitable statistical test, the research hypothesis is rejected or accepted, and finally the necessary interpretations are made. The researcher can decide what data should be collected and how. In practice, in this case, the researcher's hands are open and they can make the best possible decision, but often prospective data collection is costly and time-consuming. Another mode is retrospective research, which is often based on data collected by veterinarians from slaughterhouses, laboratories, clinics, inoculation centers, etc. or from other organizations and institutions. The article explores a range of statistical techniques applied in veterinary research and practice, including data normalization, hypothesis test, parametric and non-parametric test, regression and coefficient test, and validity in veterinary medicine. These futures has shedding light on animal interactions and patterns. Ultimately, this review article serves as a comprehensive guide for researchers and practitioners in veterinary science, offering insights into the nuanced application of statistical analyses. By navigating the complexities of veterinary data, it aims to empower the scientific community to leverage statistical tools effectively, ultimately advancing the quality and reliability of research in veterinary medicine. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Observational Studies in Veterinary Research & Practice
      Alireza Bahonar Marzieh Faezi Zahra Boluki
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      One of the most important applications of epidemiology is the investigation of the causes of diseases. In this regard, the appropriate design of study to approach the causes and risk factors of a disease is vital. Observational studies are a category of studies that hel More
      One of the most important applications of epidemiology is the investigation of the causes of diseases. In this regard, the appropriate design of study to approach the causes and risk factors of a disease is vital. Observational studies are a category of studies that help the researcher in identifying risk factors for disease occurrence and quantifying the effect of these factors on it, thereby influencing its control within the population. These studies are conducted through observing the natural behavior of disease in the population. Accurate and precise data collection (a part that receives less attention in the country) forms the cornerstone of these studies, requiring special attention from educational, extension, and research centers. In this article, various types of observational studies are initially introduced in general terms. Subsequently, cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies, as the three main types of observational studies, are comprehensively explained. The methods of grouping for study entry, calculation of minimum sample size, applications, and advantages and disadvantages of each study are described in detail. Additionally, the capabilities that each type of these studies provides to the researcher for interpreting the causality of the occurrence or the desired outcome in the study are provided at the end of each section. After introducing the implementation method of each study, depending on the case, references to three or four articles with similar study designs are provided to serve as examples of observational studies as a model. It should be noted that these types of studies are foundational for conducting intervention studies, and creating infrastructure for data recording and analysis is necessary for conducting these studies. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Interventional (Experimental) Studies in Veterinary Research & Practice
      Alireza Bahonar Marzieh Faezi Zahra Boluki
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      Interventional studies , especially in laboratory experimental researches , constitute a significant portion of the theses conducted in veterinary faculties across the country . The importance of these study designs in applied research and development underscores More
      Interventional studies , especially in laboratory experimental researches , constitute a significant portion of the theses conducted in veterinary faculties across the country . The importance of these study designs in applied research and development underscores the necessity for students and researchers to be familiar with this design . This article begins with a brief history of this type of study . It then proceeds to introduce various types ( laboratory , clinical trials , field trials , social trials , quasi-experimental studies ) , the different phases of this design ( pharmacological and toxicity testing , initial testing for potential therapeutic and safety effects , clinical evaluation stage , post-marketing evaluation ) , and its various methods (parallel design , crossover design , sequential design , factorial design ) . This article also discusses the required sample size for conducting a study , criteria for entry and exit of study participants or animals , blinding and medical ethics . Given the importance of clinical trials , especially in terms of ethical considerations in research , the registration of this type of study after proposal development is also mentioned . This article refers to some examples of interventional studies published in Iran and worldwide so that students and researchers can use these designs as models . It is expected that the reader could critically read these type of articles and reports , published in scientific texts and play an effective role in conducting an experimental ( interventional ) study . Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - An Overview of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Prediction and Diagnosis of Diseases Occurrence in Veterinary Medicine: Challenges and Techniques
      Mahdi Bashizadeh Parham Soufizadeh Mahdi Zamiri Ayda Lamei Matin Sotoudehnejad Mahsa Daneshmand Melika Ghodrati Erika Isavi Hesameddin Akbarein
      Issue 2 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2024
      Early diagnosis of diseases is one of the main goals of health and wellness centers. Timely diagnosis can reduce the potential damage of diseases. The importance of this issue in veterinary medicine multiplies due to its combination with economic goals. Therefore, a pre More
      Early diagnosis of diseases is one of the main goals of health and wellness centers. Timely diagnosis can reduce the potential damage of diseases. The importance of this issue in veterinary medicine multiplies due to its combination with economic goals. Therefore, a predictive approach is necessary for early diagnosis of diseases. This approach should be evidence-based and highly accurate. It should also be economically efficient. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence and judgment by a computer or a robot that is programmed or trained to perform tasks that normally need human abilities. The emergence of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques in today's world has improved the existing functions in health care systems. So that with the application of this technology, a significant progress has been made in the procedures of event prediction and disease diagnosis, management and health at the macro level, etc. Furthermore, the scope of diagnosable diseases is extensive, encompassing any ailment for which relevant data can be processed by artificial intelligence algorithms. The trained model has the capability to diagnose a wide range of diseases, with accuracy contingent upon factors such as disease indicators, collected data, and other pertinent variables. In this review article, the most important applications of artificial intelligence in veterinary medicine will be mentioned, and in general, these applications will be examined in various fields such as diagnosis of common diseases, differential diagnosis, prediction of disease occurrence, veterinary diagnostic imaging techniques, veterinary clinical pathology, etc. In addition, the challenges in this field will also be mentioned. This article is a review of recent studies in this fiel. Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Early diagnosis, an important success factor for treatment and control of lameness in cow
      Mohammad Reza  Aghchelou
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion More
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion scoring, the prevalence of lameness in same dairy herds was on average 8.1%. This matter shows importance of correct lameness diagnosis. The aim of this article is review of practical ways to early diagnosis of lameness in cows. Early diagnosis of lameness in cows is a very important matter because a cow that shows sever lameness have major problems and easily recognizable but a cow with lesser injury have a milder lameness and diagnosis is more difficult. In case of timely detection there is more success in treatment because of less injury. The best time for lameness diagnosis is the cows are monitored when they go to the milking parlor and return. The studies were shown usually farmers identify one of the four lamb cows because they spend a little time for this task, also the gait of cows change on different floors, like wet concrete, although it is difficult to diagnose the sound gait of mild lameness in many cases. In dairy cattle farms in addition to Body Condition Score which is done regularly, Locomotion Scoring is done regularly to allow early diagnosis of lameness. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Lameness, an ongoing threat to dairy farms
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia Amir Nejati
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is review More
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is reviewed in this article. A general look at economic loss cycles, different discomfort and health issues that may caused by lameness are the main topics that were reviewed in this article. Data recording is one of the most important factors that should be considered in any analysis. Current methods of data recording in hoof trimming chute, including paper works and usage of excel sheets and other software were reviewed. General concepts of Farsi language android application for hoof data recording introduced and analysed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - An Introduction to Equine Dentistry; Necessity of Much More Consideration
      Alireza Raayat jahromi
      Issue 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based More
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based on a scientific plan can lead to an early and definitive diagnosis; which results in a correct intervention and treatment. Dental and oral observation, necessary diagnostic and restraint equipment and instruments, attritional lesions and injuries will be explained and discussed. Finally, the current situation of equine dentistry in our country will be evaluated so that its necessity would be much more seriously considered. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Risk factors for cattle lameness
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on More
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on understanding value of causative agents and risk factors in a condition like lameness and evaluating risk factors in dairy farms. Risk factors were classified into farm building or environment factors (Top roof of the barns and its slop and height, flooring and its drainage, distance to milking parlour, milking parlour collecting area, alleys and foot bathes) Managerial factors (Nutrition and feeding, overstocking, herd composition, days in milk, cow movements in the herd, slurry cleaning and drainage, bedding) environment (Temperature, humidity, raining, wind, altitude, heat stress management) and cow factors (body condition scoring, milk production, concurrent diseases, time budgeting). Each factor was analysed in Iran’s dairy farming situation and applied methods of its management were discussed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Cow comfort, a basis for lameness control
      Reyhaneh Sangtarash Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Ensiyeh Sajadyan jaghargh
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the da More
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the dairy cow is feeling well, functioning well, and performing natural behavior. Cow behavior and comfort level have a direct relationship with her production and health and cow comfort is one of the most important factors affecting the profitability of dairy farms due to its association with premature slaughter, survival of cows and reproductive life (number of complete lactations before slaughter). In this paper, we explained the concept of comfort in dairy cattle and its risk factors such as stall design, floor type, density, lameness and heat stress. Then the measures of cow comfort are introduced and the management considerations related to cattle comfort are discussed. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Epidemiology of lameness; economic importance, prevalence and incidence
      Marzieh Faezi Reyhaneh Sangtarash
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea More
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea leads to misunderstanding of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Currently, veterinarians must support herd health programs designed to increase production by preventing disease, rather than just dispensing traditional treatment to clinically sick animals. Lameness as one of the costliest disorders in dairy herds, needs special attention. Both preventive costs (such as hoof trimming costs) and the losses due to heifer replacements and milk yield reduction should be counted as the economic losses of a disease. Indeed, local data play an important role in estimating lameness losses. Calculating measures of morbidity is a key point that helps the veterinarian and the farmer to know about the farm condition. So, in this article the economic importance of lameness and the concept of prevalence and incidence of it were reviewed. At the end there are some information about the prevalence and incidence of lameness in Iran and some other countries. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Metabolic disturbances predispose dairy cows to lameness
      Ali  Ghashghaii Mohammad Riahi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty More
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty liver. Disturbances in macro-minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, micro-minerals, proteins and enzymes often occur days to weeks after parturition. One or the most challenging post-parturient problem, is ruminal acidosis, that it mainly occurs due to changes in ration by using high fermentable carbohydrates to support milk production. All of mentioned disturbances can affect the hoof health and causing lameness in dairy cows. Laminitis is an important sequel of metabolic disturbances and ruminal acidosis in combination with inappropriate housing and management. Lameness can affect cow health and comfort, causing considerable economic losses in dairy industry. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Locomotion biomechanic and scoring in dairy farms
      Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Marzieh Faezi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and ex More
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and external factors can affect it. Following herd size growing, farmer’s attention to individual cows has been reduced, therefore lameness diagnostic accrued in sever stages when treatments have the least effect on recovery and prevention. In this article, we try to understand pain basics and behavior changes related to it, using these changes in gait (i.e. back arch, walking speed, track up, head bob etc.) to assess different locomotion scoring systems and their use in dairy farms. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Vital Pulp Therapy an Appropriate Way to Save Tooth Life
      Bahareh Aghamohammadi Azin Tavakoli
      Issue 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed a More
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed and would be necrotic or infected .In most cases pulpotomy would be the treatment choice for pulp exposures with pulpitis because of the reparative potential of remained tissue and biocompatibility of pulpotomy materials .Therefore development of biocompatible treatments for preservation of pulp vitality and tooth survival is important. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Methods of Determining Age of Ruminants and Camelids by Using Dentition Patterns
      Sare Rezaei Amir Zakian Nima Moradpour
      Issue 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Determining age is very important in domestic livestock because in addition to health, nutrition and grazing, from point of veterinary science some of the special disease it is age dependent and appear at certain ages. Therefore, knowing the age of domestic livestock fo More
      Determining age is very important in domestic livestock because in addition to health, nutrition and grazing, from point of veterinary science some of the special disease it is age dependent and appear at certain ages. Therefore, knowing the age of domestic livestock for the farmers both in terms of anticipating and preventing diseases and in terms of treatment is important and have a significant effect on exploitation, usage of animals in different services and the cost of farm. One of the methods of determining and judgment of the age in domestic animals is the use of the number, shape and date of tooth eruption. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide practical and useful information for determining the age in ruminants and camelids, as reviewed by peer-reviewed articles and resources in recent years. We hope that this article will be useful to all students of veterinary medicine, active clinicians in large animals field, animal dentistry enthusiasts and other related businesses. Manuscript profile
    Upcoming Articles
  • Affiliated to
    Iranian Veterinary Surgery Association
    Director-in-Charge
    Ahmadreza Mohamadnia (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran)
    Editor-in-Chief
    Ahmadreza Mohamadnia (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran)
    Executive Manager
    Marzieh Faezi (PhD candidate, department of food hygiene and control, faculty of veterinary medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)
    Editorial Board
    Baharak Akhtardanesh (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman,Iran) Azin Tavakoli (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Azad University of Garmsar, Iran) Mohamad mehdi Dehghan (Department of Surgery & Radiology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Tehran University, Iran) Aboutorab Tabatabai Naini (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz Iran) Mohammad Mehdi Oloumi (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman,Iran) Seyed Mahdi Ghamsari (Department of Surgery & Radiology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Tehran University, Iran) Ahmadreza Mohamadnia (Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran) Iradj Nowroozian (Department of Surgery & Radiology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Tehran University, Iran)
    Print ISSN: 2423-5695
    Online ISSN:27833291

    Publication period: TwoQuarterly
    Email
    eltiam.ivsa@yahoo.com
    Address
    Payambar Azam (The great Prophet) Highway, Opposite to Razavi Hospital, Faculty of veterinary medicine teaching hospital, Mashhad, Iran.
    Phone
    05136579430
    Fax
    05136579430
    Postal Code
    9189966618

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    Number of Volumes 10
    Number of Issues 19
    Printed Articles 97
    Number of Authors 197
    Article Views 308313
    Article Downloads 80753
    Number of Submitted Articles 118
    Number of Rejected Articles 16
    Number of Accepted Articles 98
    Acceptance 77 %
    Time to Accept(day) 131
    Reviewer Count 29
    Last Update 4/19/2024