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        1 - Metabolic disturbances predispose dairy cows to lameness
        علی قشقایی محمد ریاحی
        During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty Full Text
        During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty liver. Disturbances in macro-minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, micro-minerals, proteins and enzymes often occur days to weeks after parturition. One or the most challenging post-parturient problem, is ruminal acidosis, that it mainly occurs due to changes in ration by using high fermentable carbohydrates to support milk production. All of mentioned disturbances can affect the hoof health and causing lameness in dairy cows. Laminitis is an important sequel of metabolic disturbances and ruminal acidosis in combination with inappropriate housing and management. Lameness can affect cow health and comfort, causing considerable economic losses in dairy industry. Manuscript Document