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        1 - Metabolic disturbances predispose dairy cows to lameness
        Ali  Ghashghaii Mohamad Riahi
        During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty More
        During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty liver. Disturbances in macro-minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, micro-minerals, proteins and enzymes often occur days to weeks after parturition. One or the most challenging post-parturient problem, is ruminal acidosis, that it mainly occurs due to changes in ration by using high fermentable carbohydrates to support milk production. All of mentioned disturbances can affect the hoof health and causing lameness in dairy cows. Laminitis is an important sequel of metabolic disturbances and ruminal acidosis in combination with inappropriate housing and management. Lameness can affect cow health and comfort, causing considerable economic losses in dairy industry. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of the canine osteoarthritis
        niloofar seydi Ali  Ghashghaii
        Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by a progressive reduction of extracellular matrices in joint cartilage and bone and, eventually, loss of joint function and excessive morbidity. OA has been reported in various animal spesies, such as can More
        Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by a progressive reduction of extracellular matrices in joint cartilage and bone and, eventually, loss of joint function and excessive morbidity. OA has been reported in various animal spesies, such as canine. During years, various therapeutic measurs have been used for treating the OA. The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of the canine osteoarthritis. PRP is the concentration of platelets derived from the plasma portion of one’s own blood. It can be injected in the site of injury, or it can be made into a platelet-rich fibrin clot (PRFC) to use as a scaffold and source for sustained releasing of growth factors. These growth factors reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which dampens the production of destructive matrix. In veterinary medicine, PRP has most often been reported for tendon/ligament injuries and osteoarthritis. The majority of the veterinary literature reporting on PRP involves its use in equine patients, and evidence in canine patients is few. In summary, PRP appears to be safe and potentially useful in treating a number of orthopedic conditions. In vitro data and clinical results in other species are encouraging Manuscript profile